I started my search by checking out Wikipedia. I then looked up and read a number of things to come up with my very own simplified explanation. Disclaimer: I am in no way an engineer! This topic gets pretty deep, pretty fast. I'll do my best to keep it basic.
Vector control drives basically control 3-phase AC electric motor output by using two variables; voltage magnitude and frequency. We'll go just a little bit deeper to explain that vector control is available as field oriented control (FOC) or sensorless.
Most variable frequency drives used are Volts/Hertz, which means they provide open-loop operation. These drives are unable to retrieve feedback from the process, but can generally do the job for most applications. If these drives are not accurate enough then you want to take a look at vector control.
In general, if your application requires higher levels of accuracy, vector may be the way to go. These high performance AC drives can adjust themselves to sustain the programmed speed, rate, torque, and/or position.
Marshall Wolf Automation is a variably frequency drive powerhouse! We have a large inventory ready to ship, competitive pricing and we are authorized for all the top brands. Did I mention complimentary tech support?